Building a small slow sand water filter for individual use
San Juan Sunset
images by: David Tarsi


1. Presence of Noroviruses and Other Enteric Viruses in Sewage and Surface Waters in The Netherlands W. J. Lodder and A. M. de Roda Husman* Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
Corresponding author. Mailing address:
Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection, National
Institute of Public Health and the Environment, P.O. Box 1,
NL-3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Phone: 31 30 274 4325.
Fax: 31 30 274 4434. E-mail:

2. Coliform Bacteria and Drinking Water (Washington State Department of Health)

3. The "average" roof can collect many undesirable substances. Caution is advised.

4.The following abstracts were accessed: November 23, 2007 and would be very good reading especially for understanding the biological action in a (slow) sand water filter:
Biological and Physical Mechanisms in Slow Sand Filtration
Haarhoff, J; Cleasby, JL
IN: Slow Sand Filtration. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York. 1991. p 19-68, 11 fig, 10 tab, 54 ref.

Slow Sand Filtration: Influences of Selected Process Variables
Author(s): Bellamy, William D.; Hendricks, David W.; Logsdon, Gary S.
Citation: Journal AWWA, Vol. 77 Iss. 12, December 1985, Page(s) 62-66

Bacterivory by a chrysophyte in slow sand filters
Monroe L. Weber-Shirk* and Richard I. Dick
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-3501, USA
Received 1 September 1997; accepted 1 June 1998. Available online 25 February 2000.

Information on roofing material:
5. A review of Methods for the Manufacture of Residential Roofing Materials. Hashem Akbari, Ronnen Levinson, and Paul Berdahl. Heat Island Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Ca. 94720. A report prepared for: California Energy Commission PIER Program. June 2003.

Use this information at your own risk. The Author assumes no responsibility whatsoever for any damages of any kind as a direct or indirect result of the use of any information on this website. The information provided here is free and published with the intent of sharing experience, and is not provided as an absolute solution to anything. This is a work in progress. Mistakes will likely be found. We reseve the right to remove this content or change it at any time we choose. You have been advised.

7. A first flush diverter will not eliminate ALL bacteria or viruses from roof water, although in some cases a considerable percentage of pathogens may be removed.

8. Read more about viruses here:

9.Mechanisms of inactivation of hepatitis A virus in water by chlorine dioxide: Jun Wen Li Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Zhong Tao Xin , Xin Wei Wang , Jin Lai Zheng and Fu Huan Chao Institute of Health and Environmental Medicine of Tianjin, 1 Da Li Road, Tianjin City 300050, People's Republic of China Received 15 April 2003; Revised 7 November 2003; accepted 13 December 2003. Available online 4 March 2004.

10.viruses in water (from the New Zealand government website)

11. viruses that are not killed by chlorine in swimming pool water (caliciviruses):

12. The Turbidity Tube: Simple and Accurate Measurement of Turbidity in the Field: Written April 2006 for the requirements of CE 5993 Feild Engineering in theDeveloping World and FQ 5770 Community Planning and Analysis. Elizabeth Myre and Ryan Shaw M.S. Candidates. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Master's International Program. Michigan Technological University.

13. SUSTAINABLE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES USING MULTISTAGE SLOW SAND FILTRATION; by Shawn A. Cleary. A thesis presented to the University of Waterloo in fulfillment of the thesis requirement for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Civil Engineering Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2005 © Shawn A. Cleary 2005. page 31,32. accessed Sept 27 2008.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-3501, U.S.A.
Wat. Res. Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 631-638, 1999.

15.Toxicant and parasite challenge of Manz intermittent slow sand filter G. Palmateer, D. Manz, A. Jurkovic, R. McInnis, S. Unger, K. K. Kwan, B. J. Dutka Environmental Toxicology. Volume 14, Issue 2 , Pages217 - 225. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

16. Logan, A.J.; Stevik, T.K.; Siegrist, R.L.; Rønn, R.N. 2001. Transport and fate of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in intermittent sand filters. Wat. Res. Vol. 35, No. 18, pp.4359 - 4369.;

17. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 59
First draft prepared by Ms Joann A Wess, Dr. Larry D. Olsen, and Dr. Marie Haring Sweeny, National Institute for Occupational Saftey and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
World Health Organization Geneva, 2004

18. The Contribution of particles washed from rooftops to contaminant loading to urban streams.
P.C. Van Metre, B.J. Mahler. US Geological Survey, Research and INvestigations, 9802 Exchange Dr., Austin TX. 78754-3898.

19. House Roof Runoff: Is It as Clean As We Think?
Jennifer Gadd and Paul Kennedy. Kingett Mitchell and Asociates,%20Kennedy.pdf

20. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Asphalt and In Correspoinding Leachate Water.
A.J. Kriech, J.T. Kurek, L.V. Osborn, H.L. Wissel, B.J. Sweeney. Heritage Research Group, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, 22:517-535, 2002.

21. Information on Tannins from Cornell university (

22.Western Wood Preservers Ltd. 26035 - 31B Avenue, Aldergrove, BC V4W 2Z6 - Telephone: (604) 857-1900 - 856-7779

23.Using CCA Preservative-Treated Lumber in Gardens and Landscaping. Publication Number: 8128 Inventory Type: PDF File Language: English ISBN-13: 978-1-60107-307-5 Copyright Date: 2004 Length: 8 pp.
University of California

24.EPA evaluation of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and other preservatives

25.Corso PS, Kramer MH, Blair KA, Addiss DG, Davis JP, Haddix AC. Cost of illness in the 1993 Waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreak, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Emerging Infectious Diseases. (serial online) 2003 Apr. Date Cited: 2009-01-03.
Available from: URL:

26.The significance of algae as trihalomethane precursors
Graham, NJD | Wardlaw, VE | Perry, R | Jiang, Jia-Qian
RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT AND WATER SUPPLY--AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM. pp. 83-89. Water Science and Technology (Water Sci. Technol.). Vol. 37, no. 2.

27.Identification of New Drinking Water Disinfection by - Products from Ozone, Chlorine Dioxide, Chloramine, and Chlorine
Journal Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Publisher Springer Netherlands
ISSN 0049-6979 (Print) 1573-2932 (Online)
Issue Volume 123, Numbers 1-4 / October, 2000
DOI 10.1023/A:1005265509813
Pages 95-102
Subject Collection Earth and Environmental Science
SpringerLink Date Monday, November 29, 2004
S. D. Richardson1, A. D. Thruston Jr.1, T. V. Caughran1, P. H. Chen1, T. W. Collette1, K. M. Schenck2, B. W. Lykins Jr.2, C. Rav-Acha3 and V. Glezer3
(1) National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Rd., Athens, GA 30605, USA
(2) National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
(3) Research Laboratory of Water Quality, Israel Ministry of Health, 69 Ben-Zvi St., Tel-Aviv, 61082, Israel
accessed: 2009-01-03

28. Slow Sand Filtration. L. Huisman, Professor of Sanitary Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering,
Technological University, Delft, Netherlands. W.E. Wood, F.I.C.E. Formerly Chief, Community Water Supply, World Health Organization , Geneva.
World Health Organization, 1974, ISBN 9241540370 accessed 2009-04-03.

29. Eberhard ML. Nace EK, Won KY, Punkosdy GA, Bishop HS, Johnston SP. Baylisascaris procyonis in the metropolitan Atlanta area. Emerg Infect Dis 2003 Dec. Available from: URL:   Accessed 2009-07-06

30. Patrick J. Gavin, Kevin R. Kazacos, and Stanford T. Shulman . Baylisascariasis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, October 2005, p. 703-718, Vol. 18, No. 4. Accessed 2009-07-06.


32. Shafir SC, Wang W, Sorvillo FJ, Wise ME, Moore L, Sorvillo T, et al. Thermal death point of Baylisascaris procyonis eggs. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Volume 13, number 1. 2007 Jan. Accessed 2009-07-09 Available from

33. Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources. The University of Georgia. WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT Publication Series WMS - 09 --23 January 2010. Raccoon Roundworm (Baylisascaris) Infection. Emily L. Blizzard, Michael J. Yabsley, Todd N. Nims, and Laurel E. Garrison. Accessed Feb. 26 2011. (page3)

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